As mentioned above, the Czech Republic has been in the Austro-Hungarian Empire since the mid-17th century. From the 17th to the 19th Century, the centralization of the monarchy facilitated the preference of the German language in state and church self-government. At the end of the 18th century, the Czech national revival began to grow, i.e. the effort to revive Czech culture and language, and later to gain political power by parties representing the interests of Czech ethnicity.
In the second half of the 19th century, Czech political figures, such as Frantisek Palacky, took the view that federalized Austria could be a suitable living space for the Czech nation and other Slavic nations. This idea was linked to the idea of so-called Austro-Slavism = the political opinion that the Slavs are or should be the mainstay of the Habsburg monarchy, the wider cultural and economic cooperation of the Slavs in the Habsburg monarchy, especially the Czechs (and Czechoslovaks) and the South Slavs.
After the First World War and after the defeat of Austria-Hungary, after October 28, 1918, the Bohemian Crowns, parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, including the Carpathian Ruthenia, were connected to a new state unit, Czechoslovakia. His first
president was Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk.
After the declaration of independence, border conflicts with Poland and Hungary took place, as well as the riots in the German regions of the country. In 1938, Czechoslovakia was forced to transfer Germany to a large border area (the Sudetenland) by the Munich Agreement. The southern regions of Slovakia and the Carpathian region fell to Hungary. A small part of the Czechoslovak territory, especially the Tesin region, was occupied by Poland. The name of this truncated state department began to be written with a hyphen (Czecho-Slovakia). For the remaining short period of time since the Munich Agreement, until the complete break-up of Czechoslovakia in March 1939, the Second Republic was named. On March 14, 1939, Slovakia declared independence, and after the occupation by German troops on 15 March 1939, the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was declared the rest of Czechoslovak territory. The German occupation of Czechoslovakia met the massive resistance of the country’s population and groups supported from abroad. In May 1945, the liberation of Czechoslovakia was completed, and a formally democratic state was restored. The 1945-1948 period is sometimes called the Third Republic.
After World War II, the country became a totalitarian state and part of the Eastern Bloc under the Soviet Union. In 1960, the new constitution was changed to the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (CSSR). At the end of the 1950s and in the 1960s liberalization gradually progressed, until January 1, 1969, the unitary state formally turned into a federation of two sovereign national states – the Czech Socialist Republic (CSR) and the Slovak Socialist Republic (SSR). The Velvet Revolution, launched on November 17, 1989, overthrew the Communist regime and enabled the restoration of democracy and free enterprise. There have been contradictions between the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic which eventually led to the collapse of the common state. Czechoslovakia ceased to exist in the peace process on 31 December 1992. The former National Republic has taken over the legal order of the divestiture federation and divided its assets and liabilities.
On March 12, 1999, the Czech Republic was admitted to NATO and on 1 May 2004 it joined the European Union. In 2004, it acceded to the Schengen agreements, which became part of the Schengen area on 21 December 2007.